Rome is the capital, municipality, largest city and most populous country of Italy with a population of over 2.7 million people spread over 1,285.3 km². The city is located in the central-western part of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River in the Italian region of Lazio. The history of Rome spans over two thousand five hundred years. The city was the capital of the Roman Kingdom and is considered the cradle of Western civilization, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire which was the dominant power in Western Europe and the lands bordering the Mediterranean for more than 700 years from the first. century BC until the seventh century AD. Since the first century AD, Rome has been the seat of the Papacy, and after the end of Byzantine control in the eighth century, it became the capital of the Papal State, which lasted until 1870. In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Papal State. Kingdom of Italy, then capital of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Rome was ranked by the Global Cities and Globalization Research Network in 2010 as a beta + world city, as well as being the 28th city in global importance. In 2007, Rome was the eleventh most visited city in the world, the third most visited city in the European Union and the most visited city in Italy. The city is one of the most successful European "brands" in terms of reputation and origins. The historic city center is on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museum and the Colosseum are among the 50 most visited tourist destinations in the world (the Vatican Museums receive 4.2 million tourists and the Colosseum 4 million tourists annually). Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is currently seeking to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.
Rome has a Mediterranean climate, typical of the Italian Mediterranean coast. Spring and autumn are mild or warm, and Roman autumn days are known to be sunny and warm. The average daytime temperature in August exceeds 30°C. Many companies close their offices during August, while Romans go on vacation to the resorts. In recent years and in response to increased tourism and changing work habits, the city remains active throughout the summer. The average high temperature in January is around 12.9°C, but it can be higher while subzero temperatures are not uncommon. Snow can fall in December, January, February and March.
Rome is an ancient city that has its mark in history. It was the center of the world, the capital of the Roman Empire, and the seat of the Pope. All this is embodied in the city's landmarks, making it one of the most attractive cities for tourists, who come to see and explore, in addition to those coming to enjoy shopping and Italian food. The city is a tourist attraction in Italy and the whole world, a clear sign of sophistication, origins and a long-standing reputation, as many consider it a museum open to visitors.
The best tourist and archaeological sites in Rome
18: What do you know about the Roman amphitheater "Colosseum" in Rome?
- The first thing that comes to mind when we talk about the Roman Empire is the massive structure of the Colosseum.
- It took eight years to build this huge building, which was built more than 2,000 years ago, and this building always expresses the richness of the Roman era.
- This amphitheater can accommodate about 50,000 people.
- The Colosseum is considered a symbol of power and authority in Roman times.
- It is an inspiring building and was not only built as a playground or playground for games and events.
- And the Colosseum became a source of inspiration until this time, reminding us of the greatness of Roman history bygone.
When the Roman amphitheater was built in the Roman civilization, the reason for its construction was not any religious consideration whatsoever, but a display of animal confinement and hunting. The amphitheater is divided into tiers, with seats reserved for the elite class of society. There was also a separate square for the ruling emperor with senators, nobles, commoners and the poor to understand their oath. The Roman amphitheater witnessed many human battles and bloodshed throughout history.
With the presence of the Catholic Church, the Colosseum turned into a place of worship for Christians. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Roman Amphitheater was declared a holy place in honor of all those who were martyred in it. To this day, the Good Friday procession begins at the Colosseum.
The Roman Amphitheater and what is known as the Colosseum are located on an area of about 60 acres, and this is in its first construction. With the passage of time and due to the devastation caused by earthquakes, fires and thefts, only a third of the building remains, and this remaining part is a sad remnant of the former glory of the ancient Colosseum.
If you have ever been to tourism in Italy, especially in Rome, and have not visited the Greek amphitheater, you have missed out on a lot. When you next visit to Rome, Italy, you must visit the Colosseum, the giant building in order to complete the splendor of your trip and enjoy the place and take the most beautiful pictures there in front of one of the most famous tourist attractions in the world, which is one of the main tourist attractions in Rome, dedicated to thousands of tourists every year because this The amphitheater is a relic of the ancient Roman civilization. One of the most wonderful scenes of the Colosseum is the scene of the Roman amphitheater at night with its wonderful lights, so that the amphitheater looks like a wonderful masterpiece worth watching and contemplating.
17: Roman Forum
The Roman Forum is a rectangular public square located in the center of ancient Rome, and was the center of many important Roman government buildings at the time. The Roman Forum - located in a small valley between the Palatine Hills and the Capitoline - for centuries at the heart of public life in ancient Rome, where popular ceremonies and government elections were held, was the center of public speeches, trials, public performances from fights to the death among prisoners, but also the core of Roman trade and economy my life. The square was filled with statues commemorating ancient Roman men. Some believe that the Roman Forum was the most famous public forum in history, and still attracts 4.5 million visitors annually as a prominent archaeological site.
16: The Pantheon, the temple of the gods and the oldest Catholic church in Rome
- The Pantheon (meaning the Temple of All Gods) is a building in Rome, originally built as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome.
- It is the best preserved ancient Roman building, and perhaps the best preserved building from that era in the world, and the building was in continuous use throughout its history.
- It is believed that the design of the building dates back to the architect Trajan Apollodorus of Damascus, but the construction and design can also be thanks to Emperor Hadrian or the architects, and since the seventh century the building has been used as a Christian church, and it is now the oldest building with a dome still standing in Rome.
- The Pantheon is located in the center of Rome and tops the list of places to visit in the Eternal City. It is considered one of the best buildings that have preserved its shape from the Roman era. The building has a massive charm that catches the attention of passersby.
- Built in 128 AD as a temple to all the gods of ancient Rome, it has been converted into a Catholic church since the 7th century.
- The first temple was built in 27 BC. At the request of Consul Agrippa, son-in-law of Emperor Augustus, it was completely rebuilt during the reign of Hadrian in the second century AD.
- It consists of a huge circular portico surmounted by a dome, considered the largest concrete dome in the world. Walking a few steps in its corridor and entering its void feels an overwhelming pleasure that transcends the boundaries of the ages. Here, two thousand years of history are summed up in every detail, and history is teeming with people who were associated with the place or were widely talked about: Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Goethe, the list is endless.
- The construction of a large rotunda adjacent to the portico of the classical temple is an innovation of Roman architecture. The circular space model with a covered vault was used around the same time in the large thermal rooms, but its use here is new to the temple.
- It was important that the effect of the surprise was clearly visible once the threshold of the entrance was crossed. The inner space of rotation consists of a cylinder covered with a row of balls.
- The height of the cylinder is equal to the radius, and the total of its height is equal to the diameter, so you can use the full range of the interior space. The diameter of the dome is 44 meters.
ancient temple shape
- The first temple was rectangular, with courtyards arranged transversely, as in the Temple of Concorde in the Roman Forum, or the small Temple of Pepi on Campidolio Hill.
- It was built of limestone blocks and lined with marble. It is also known that the hooks were of bronze, the front decoration was of statues and columns in the form of a woman, and inside the portico we find the aisles of statues of Augustus and Agrippa.
- Through Cassio's debts, it is ascertained that Pantheon was not the building's real name and that Agrippa's intention was to create a dynastic cult, perhaps dedicated to the protection of Julia's sons: Mars, Venus and the deified Julius Caesar.
- The building was damaged numerously by a fire in the year 80 AD, which was restored by Domitiano, but it was subjected to new destruction during the reign of Trajano in the year 110, and the design of the place was drawn up by Emperor Hadrian himself. It ordered the removal of the granite Corinthian columns that decorate its entrance, each weighing sixty tons.
- These columns were carried from eastern Upper Egypt via the Nile to Alexandria, then transported across the Mediterranean to the port of Ostia in western Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea, and then transported via the Tiber.
Rebuilding the Pantheon
- During the reign of Adriano this building was completely rebuilt, and the name of this emperor did not appear in the inscriptions due to his refusal to personalize his name in the works carried out during his reign, as it is completely different from his predecessor Trajano. .
- It is found that the markings in the bricks correspond to the years 123-125, indicating that the temple was opened by the emperor during his stay in the capital between 125 and 128.
- Although no one knows for sure who the architect was, the projects are usually attributed to Apollodoro in Damascus.
- The orientation of this former temple was also changed and its main facade was placed on the north side. This minaret consists of a row of columns like a portico, as well as a wide circular courtyard with a medium prismatic structure.
- The large portico and the building united with the square occupied the space of the former temple, while a mausoleum was built on the square of the Place de la Augustus that separated the Pantheon from the Church of Neptune.
- A courtyard of porticos was built on its three sides in front of this temple and paved with slabs of limestone.
15: Vatican City 10 facts you do not know about the Vatican City tourism
- Smallest country: The Vatican, which is considered a state according to international law, has an independent power under an absolute monarchy headed by the Pope. It has an area of about half a kilometer. The Vatican has its own passport, postage stamps, license plates, flag and anthem.
- City of the Dead: In the 4th century AD, Christianity became the official religion in Italy, and a cathedral was built over the tomb of St. Peter in the 16th century. The current cathedral is located above a town with the remains of Christians who died in AD 64.
- St. Peter's Square Obelisk: Nero's forces moved the "Great Column" (obelisk), a one-piece 350-ton piece of granite, from Heliopolis to its present location in Saint Peter's Square. It was built for one of the pharaohs more than 3000 years ago.
- He refused to leave: - After the unification of Italy in 1870, the relationship between the government and the Church was tense, as the first got its hands on the lands of the second. The popes refused to recognize the state and camped in the Vatican for nearly 60 years.
- Recognition of the State: - In 1929 the Italian government and the Church signed an agreement according to which the Vatican was recognized as an independent state, and the state granted the Church financial compensation for the areas under its control.
- The new headquarters: - After the Popes settled in France for a long time, the headquarters of the church moved to Rome in 1377 AD, and the Popes began to use the Vatican as the seat of government and residence from that year to the present day.
- Swiss Guard: - The Pope personally guards a Swiss Guard and this tradition has been in place since 1509 when Pope Julius hired a Swiss force to protect it to act as the "smallest army in the world".
- Escape Tunnel: There is a tunnel connecting the Vatican to Castel Sant'Angelo on the banks of the Tiber River. It was built in 1277 with the aim of securing the escape of popes in cases of danger. The Pope saved the tunnel in 1527.
- The people of the Vatican: The number of residents who hold the citizenship of the Vatican State is about 600 people, according to statistics in 2011, most of them live outside the country, and work in church positions in several countries in the world.
- Astronomical Observatory: - The Vatican owns a telescope in his name in the United States of America to monitor the stars, and conducts research through the telescope located above Mount Graham in southeastern Arizona.
14: The Italian Trevi Fountain.
- Most of us may have seen this fountain before while watching Italian cartoons dubbed into Arabic, but the vast majority of us didn't know it in front of a graphic drawing of the "Trevi Fountain" or "Fontana di Trevi" as an Italian masterpiece called in Italian. It was built in Rome in 1762 AD, to be and remain the largest fountain in the city, with a height of 26 meters and a width of 20 meters, and the most famous fountain in the history of art, literature, antiquities and European. tourism.
- Ancient Italian history tells us that young women of Rome used to come to the spring before the fountain was built in the same place in the hope that their wish to marry would be fulfilled, hence the word "trevi" which means "virgin". "In Italian, as it was used by untalented women. The blessing of procreation in the hope that their desire for motherhood would be fulfilled, hence the history of the myths that began to swirl around the fountain, and their relationship to fulfill the wishes of its visitors and visitors even today. There is another myth more prevalent in Italian society, which is It relates to the story of the three virgins immortalized by Roman civilization in famous ancient myths as an enduring historical symbol of fertility, purity and beauty, and the name of a fountain that has been associated with them for centuries.
- The fountain was built in the nineteenth century BC during the reign of King “Aqraba”, and the main objective of its construction was to have a place where the running water would gather through the suspended canals in Rome, before the Pope “Nicole V ordered the engineer and artist “Leon Batisia Alberti” to restore the fountain and finish From the construction of the basin dedicated to collecting water that drains from these channels in the fifteenth century AD, until the Italian artist "Nicole Salvi" came to sculpt her marble statues that symbolize the features of Roman moral legends in the eighteenth century AD.
The symbolism of the artistic fountain:
- The site of the fountain was chosen under a massive antique palace that highlights the glories of engineering, culture, and professionalism in Rome during the Middle Ages. The statue of "Neptune", the famous mythical character, stands on a chariot drawn by two horses, surrounded by three virgins of the myth, while the pond in which the water flows in abundance represents the oceans of water on the globe, and its oval circle indicates the four seasons in their fluctuations and changes in the natural conditions of the world.
- Although the palace under which the fountain was built is considered one of the masterpieces of Italian artistic and archaeological architecture. However, tourists are not allowed to visit it or explore it from the inside, the most they can do is take a look at its exterior, and take some souvenir photos of its wonderful architecture.
13: Piazza Navona
One of the most famous squares in Rome, Italy, and one of the most attractive squares for tourists, as it includes many sights in Rome, such as the Fountain of the Four Rivers, the Moore Fountain, the Church of St. Agnes and others. It is also one of the most beautiful places to visit in Rome, with many restaurants and cafes teeming with nightlife. Piazza Navona was built over Domitian's stadium in the past, and was built by Emperor Domitian in the 1st century. It is for this reason that the square has a long oval shape.
The ancient Romans came to watch the games, and it was formerly known as "the Arena of Competition", and after time the name of the arena was changed to Piazza Navona. The Four Rivers Fountain is the main attraction in Piazza Navona. The fountain is located in the center of the square. One of the most important features of the fountain is that it represents four shapes, each of which represents a river from a different continent. We have the Nile, the Ganges, the Danube and the Rio de la Plata. Statues The base of the rock was originally found in the Circus Maxentius near the Appia Way.
12: The Spanish Steps in Rome
It is a wide staircase that connects the roundabout of Spain with Piazza Trinitade de Monte. The staircase is located in a large courtyard in the middle of the boat roundabout, also called the old boat roundabout, which symbolizes the sinking of ancient Rome when the Tiber overflowed and the river swept the boat away here. The Spanish Steps area in Rome is one of the best places to visit in Rome
Spanish Stairs Rome was built with French government funding at the time to connect the Vatican's Piazza de España to the Trinità dei Monti church in what was formerly the Boatyard, whose story goes back to the sinking of ancient Rome when the Tiber overflowed and swept the boat there. And
The area where the Spanish Staircase is located in Rome attracts large numbers of tourists and locals and is very crowded in spring and summer, its steps adorned with so-called azaleas, which are purple, red and pink flowers. An impressive fountain in its lower courtyard which makes it an artistic portrait of great beauty in itself.
11: Borghese Museum
It is an art gallery located in Rome, Italy, housed in the former residence of Villa Borghese Ponciana, a building that was once an integral unit with its characteristic gardens surrounding it, which is nowadays completely independent and is called by tourists the gardens of the villa. Borghese.
The Borghese Galleria houses a large part of the Borghese collection of paintings, sculptures and antiquities, started by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). The villa was built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, and the plans were developed by Scipione Borghese himself, who used the villa as a suburban villa located at a tip on the edge of Rome.
10: Santa Maria Church
It is the Marian Roman Catholic Church in Rome. It is one of the four papal cathedrals in the city, which is considered the property of the Vatican and is called the "Great Churches" and is supervised by the Pope. During its history, the church was called by several names and was restored and added to it several times between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries, and it is considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The church is located near the Laterano hill above the hill historically known as Esquilino Hill. The church is considered the oldest Roman church built in the name of the Virgin Mary. It is also called the "Church of Our Lady of the Snows" and "the Church of Liberius" after the Pope who built it in the wake of the Council of Ephesus. Perhaps the most distinguishing feature of this church from the rest of the church is that its historical structure is square in shape and divided into three sections.
9: Ancient Rome
It is considered the oldest place in Rome, the residence of the ancient royal family of Rome, where the ancient shrines are located, and today are still ruins, with tourists wandering among its sides, this place is located between the Venice Square. The Colosseum. Ancient Rome is one of the civilizations that arose during the middle of the eighth century BC, which arose from an ancient agricultural community on the Italian peninsula.
Its presence also extended to the coasts of the Mediterranean, to be one of the largest empires that lived in the ancient world, and this civilization contributed to the development of many fields such as: government, war, arts, engineering, technology, and language. In various regions of the Western world, and the influence of these aspects is still present in the world during the current period. The history of ancient Rome witnessed many important events and achievements, which were considered turning points.
Piazza España is one of the most beautiful squares in the Italian capital, Rome, where there are the most famous shops with famous brands, and it intersects with commercial streets such as Conditi Street, and there is the Fountain della Barcacia, which was built by the artist Pietro Renini in 1629 AD. To get to the square, you can take the metro on line A and stop at the Spain metro station.
The arena is connected to several stands called the "Spanish Steps" stadium. The number of degrees reaches 135 degrees, which is a mixture of curves and connects from the bottom with the Piazza de España, and from the top with the Trinita dei Monte. You will have a great view from the top where you will be able to see the Eternal City as well as the narrow streets. To the right of the stairs is the home of the English Romantic poet John Keats, who died in 1821. If you are a Keats fan, you can visit his house which has become a museum in his memory.
7: Venice Square (Venice): Victory Monument
Piazza Venezia in Rome is one of the most beautiful and wonderful squares. The first thing that attracts the visitor's attention in the square is the huge whitewashed building made of white limestone. The huge white building is called the Victory Monument. It was built on the occasion of the union of Italy and dedicated to King Victor Emmanuel II. Its construction took 26 years, from 1885 to 1911. This building is located in the largest square of the Italian capital, Rome, which is called Piazza Venezia. The most important streets of the commercial capital branch off from it.
This commercial street ends at Piazza del Popolo, that is, the People's Square. In the middle of the huge white building there is a wide staircase where when you reach the top of the stairs you will have a very nice view. The upper floor of the white building consists of 16 columns in the middle and 2 on each side. Above each of them is a victory statue decorated with wings. The building includes the Museo del Palazzo Venezia, which contains a large historical collection of Renaissance, paintings, armour, statues, and many decorative arts as well. Overlooking Piazza Venezia is the most important commercial street in the capital, and the commercial street ends at Piazza del Popolo.
6: Shanghai People's Square
"Piazza del Popolo" is one of the most famous squares in Rome, and in modern Italian it means the square of the people. This large square was originally a place of festivals, and for centuries it was also a place for the public execution of the death penalty. The Porta del Popolo gate was designed by Bernini,
In the center of the square is an Egyptian obelisk marking the meeting point of the three famous streets that begin in the square: Via del Corso, Via del Babuino and Via di Repetta. The obelisk was built of granite in Egypt, and during the reign of Ramses II, Emperor Augustus brought it to Rome.
Villa Borghese is located in the center of Rome and is one of the most beautiful and largest gardens of the Italian capital. It was built in the seventeenth century. It is a park frequented by visitors to the capital on holidays. At the top of the garden, the Pavilion of Villa Borghese was built between 1613 and 1614. This villa has been converted into the Bugis Museum and Gallery. This museum houses masterpieces of paintings such as the statues of Raffaello, Antonio Canova, Pietro and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
The gardens of Villa Borghese in Rome are characterized by the wonderful texture and mixture of nature with monuments, statues and rock carvings, where they are covered with a green cover of grass, pine trees, oaks and many kinds of colorful and rare flowers, in addition to natural lakes, fountains and a zoo, and during your wonderful tour you can take a walk by boat in the lakes or take a ride Bicycle and walk among the tree-shaded walkways, or even just enjoy this beauty on foot and buy something from one of the stalls dotted among the gardens with a number of restaurants and cafes.
4: Tivoli park Copenhagen
Northeast of Rome, the Tivoli Gardens are distinguished by their mansions, green terraces, streams, more than 500 fountains, and the beauty of the geometric shapes of green shrubs. These gardens were the seat of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este II, who restored them between 1550 AD and 1569 AD,
To make it a beautiful palace and garden. In summer nights, the gardens become more beautiful, because of the lighting on the fountains, and one of the most beautiful fountains is the Ovato Fountain or the Tivoli Fountain, and this fountain is a symbol of the city in which the gardens are located.
3: Flower Square in Rome
It is a rectangular square near Piazza Navona in Rome, whose literal translation means "field of flowers". Today, this small square has become a popular market in the heart of Rome, where fruits, vegetables and vegetable products are sold, and there are stalls where leather goods, antiques and accessories are sold. and gifts.
2: Via Veneto (Via Vittorio Veneto) A road in Rome, Italy
One of Rome's most expensive and elegant streets is Via Veneto, lined with shops selling leather goods, shoes and gloves, luxury hotels, and upscale cafés. It is also home to the famous Café dei Bari.
Via Veneto is characterized by the presence of various types of cafes in the open air or with closed glass. At the end of Via Veneto, you'll be able to see the huge Orleans Wall that surrounds Rome, the walls were built during the last quarter of the 3rd century AD. There are many international leather, jewelry and fashion stores on Via Veneto.
1: Via avenue de Condotti
Via Condotti is one of the most famous shopping streets in Rome because it is the most famous place that is crowded with shops and international brands such as Arcani and Gucci, so it is one of the streets that is crowded with tourists of all nationalities, especially celebrities who are always keen to visit this street to buy the most beautiful gifts and products,
The month of sale in Rome starts from July 5 to August 15, this is the perfect month to shop at the Monastery of Kotor and buy whatever you want at a very discounted price. But if you can't visit Rome during sale time, you can enjoy the winter sale that runs from January 4 to February 26.