Documentary the most powerful civilization on earth (Pharaonic civilization of the ancient Egyptians)

Definition of pharaonic civilization

  • Pharaonic civilization or the civilization of ancient Egypt, which is that civilization that was prominent in the Mediterranean about 30 centuries ago, in the period between (3100-332 BC).

The emergence of the pharaonic civilization

Documentary the most powerful civilization on earth (Pharaonic civilization of the ancient Egyptians)

  • It is ancient Egyptian civilization with a long history that became famous all over the world. It dates back to about (4000) BC. Where it originated in Egypt in the northeastern part of the continent of Africa. Its borders are located on the banks of the Nile River.

  • This civilization was founded on the banks of the Nile Valley, and is a symbol of fertility and stability for the peoples of ancient Egypt and even modern. And they wrote their writings on walls of tombs, temples, and wooden panels before they used (papyrus), which spread since the First Dynasty at the beginning of the third millennium BC.

  • Its rise coincided with the unification of King Mina between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt together. Over the course of three thousand years, Egypt has undergone a great development.

  • History indicates that Pharaonic civilization is one of the most civilizations that inherited the world's achievements in human history. And he achieved overwhelming success in the Nile River Valley due to the abundance of the ingredients of agriculture.

  • Their interest was agriculture, animal husbandry, and utilization, and the Egyptians were interested in writing and building the great buildings palaces, temples, and statues of God that they worshiped. And they left many landmarks that still testify to the prosperity of their civilization, such as The pyramids and the Sphinx.

Pharaonic dynasties

The presence of the Nile River Pharaonic civilization helped form powerful agricultural societies since more or less 6000 BC. The Egyptian society has also developed to this day, and the first ruling dynasty arose in 3100 BC. Among the most prominent periods of Egyptian pharaonic rule are the following:

The ancient pharaonic state


  • The rule of the Old Pharaonic State in Egypt extended since (2580-2130) BC, and it was known as the Old Kingdom, and it included several dynasties that ranged between 4-6 dynasties, and some stone inscriptions were discovered, and they include some remnants of the Pharaohs and information related to them except for their names.

Middle Pharaonic State

The rule of the middle Pharaonic state extended from 2000-1630 BC, and the Mentuhotep II family took control of (the rule of the pharaonic state), and took (the city of Thebes or Luxor currently) as its capital, and included (the middle state the eleventh and twelfth dynasties of government) , also distinguished in trade. The mines of the Nuba region constituted the main source of gold in Egypt, and the Pharaohs traded in some commodities such as ebony, ivory, leopard skins, and ostrich poles.

The modern pharaonic state

The modern pharaonic state was known as the Modern Empire, and its rule extended during the years 1540-1080 BC, and 3 dynasties of the ruling families lived in it, where (Akhenaten's family) is one of these dynasties, and this period of the rule of The Pharaonic or Egyptian state with the spread of art, antiquities, and architecture.

Manito dynasties of the Pharaonic civilization.

Contemporary scholars such as the Thirty Manetho dynasties have divided them into "kingdoms"; At certain times, when property was divided or political and social conditions were somewhat chaotic, that was the "intermediate periods".

But today, the generally agreed chronology is divided as follows, starting from 3100 years before the birth of Christ - BC - about 5,114 years ago.

    • Archaic period (414 years)
    • Old Kingdom (505 years old), The first transitional period (126 years).
    • Middle Kingdom (405 years), The second transitional period (100 years).
    • New Kingdom (481 years old), The third transitional period (322 years).
    • Late period (415 years).
    • Ptolemaic period (302 years).

Egyptian antiquities .. facts and figures

Documentary the most powerful civilization on earth (Pharaonic civilization of the ancient Egyptians)

In the past, they said: "Our traces appear to us." Antiquities are Egypt's national heritage and wealth. The land of Egypt contains the most wonderful (remains of mankind) in the most sites and cities .. As (Pharaonic civilization) is wonderful for a purpose ..

 Within the exhibition halls in dozens of museums, Egyptian antiquities vary between (Pharaonic, Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic), and the most important of these are the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, the ruins of Saqqara, the ruins of Dahshur, Karnak Temple, Luxor Temple, and the Temple of Luxor. Habu, Valley of the Kings, Valley of the Queens, and the Great Temple. And the small temple of Abu Simbel, the temple of Edfu, the Amarna, the Tuna of the mountain, the temple of Abydos and Dendera. and others. This is in addition to churches, mosques, castles and Islamic doors and walls.

The year 2016 witnessed many achievements in the field of archaeological work in various sectors of the Ministry of Antiquities at all levels to ensure the protection of archaeological sites and museums:

  • The Prime Minister issued a decision in October 2016 to establish a public authority called the “Grand Egyptian Museum” and another called “The National Museum of Pharaonic Civilization” provided that they have a public legal personality similar to the Library of Alexandria because of the importance of the two museums as they are among the most important national projects on the land of Egypt, in addition to To their importance as integrated global enlightenment, cultural and civilizational centers that provide a unique and pioneering experience to introduce (the cultural and archaeological heritage of Egypt).

  • The decision also included that each museum would have a board of trustees to be formed based on a decision of the Council of Ministers, and whose membership includes a group of experienced Egyptian and international public figures. The main task of the Council will be to set the general policies of the two museums to achieve the desired goal.

  • The Ministry of Antiquities issued a number of decisions to provide the best services to Egyptian and foreign visitors to museums and archaeological sites, including: the opening of the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir on the night of Sunday and Thursday of each week, and the issuance of annual permits. To visit archaeological sites for foreigners and Arabs residing in Egypt, and issue a Luxor pass permit that allows its holder to visit all archaeological areas open for visit in Luxor Governorate, including the tombs of “First Site” and “Nefertari” or without them depending on the value of the permit, as well as the entry of Egyptians and Arabs residing in Egypt Over the age of sixty for all museums and archaeological sites free of charge without incurring any fees in an attempt to provide the opportunity for the elderly to visit the monuments in Egypt.

  • The opening of a number of museums and archaeological sites, including the Mallawi Museum, after the completion of a rehabilitation project that lasted nearly three years, which began immediately after the end of the work of the Archaeological and Scientific Committee formed by the Ministry of Antiquities in 2013. To clarify the damage caused to the museum after the museum was destroyed and its contents stolen. The second and final phase of the project to lower the groundwater level in the vicinity of the Edfu temple, and the opening of the pyramid of King Unas and three tombs of senior statesmen from the reign of King Pepi I and Ramses II, after completing the restoration work. 

  • The opening of four ancient tombs from the era of the modern state on the western mainland in Luxor for the royal servants of Queen Hatshepsut, the Eighteenth Dynasty and King Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty, and the inauguration of the ancient Abanoub in the city of Samanoud in the Gharbia Governorate.

  • Opening of the Kom Oshim Museum in Fayoum Governorate, after completing its restoration, development and rehabilitation project. Al-Zahir Baibars Mosque in Qalyubia Governorate and the Islamic City of Al-Qasr in Dakhla Oasis after the completion of the first phase of the project to restore the Church of the Virgin and Martyr.

  • The opening of a number of ancient buildings in the Al-Khalifa neighborhood, namely the Dome of Shajar Al-Durr, the view of the Dome of Sayyida Ruqayya, the Ateeqa and Al-Jaafari domes, and the Helwan Corner Museum after carrying out some maintenance work. Work in the museum before its opening, which consists in maintaining the surveillance cameras on the site, replacing the damaged ones, and preparing new identification cards for all pieces. The archaeological site was also developed during the development of the gardens surrounding the rest house to be reused for holding cultural activities and seminars.

Antiquities recovered during 2016:

Egypt is one of the heritage countries that has suffered in great periods of theft of its archaeological and cultural heritage, and is currently making great efforts to restore smuggled antiquities, as 1,300 artifacts have been recovered since 2011 until now.

  • In 2016, two covers of human-shaped coffins from the Pharaonic era, made of wood and a colored cardboard with a number of colorful inscriptions and decorations, and a set of wooden fillings were found from Israel after they were deposited in the Bonhams Auction Hall in London, and were stolen from the dome of the Abbasid caliphs in the tomb of Mrs. Nafisa , an ivory statue from Berlin dating from the 7th or 8th century AD, a stone ship from Berlin, as well as the Seven Sacred Oil Paintings from Switzerland dating back to the Old Kingdom. From America, the Emirates and Switzerland are two niches that were stolen from the stores of the Museum of Civilization, and a funerary stela of the so-called “Sishn Nefertum” made of limestone.

  • Late period wooden sarcophagus, a double black astatite statue of a man and woman recovered from Brussels, along with 44 artifacts from France belonging to different eras of the ancient Egyptian civilization, a limestone statue of a woman dating from Roman times as well as spindle heads and earrings And crosses, wooden pieces, and hands that were used as musical instruments, all date back to the Coptic era, a stone tablet dating back to the reign of King "Nakhtenbo II", and a small ushabti statue from Mexico.

  • He received 4 artifacts smuggled to the United States, in a grand ceremony held by the Egyptian Embassy in Washington on December 2, 2016, knowing that the artifacts are Pharaonic antiquities that include two wooden coffins, and a linen shroud of a mummy on them. Mask, in addition to the mummy's hand.

Exhibitions of Egyptian antiquities abroad... The best ambassador of the Pharaonic civilization:

Documentary the most powerful civilization on earth (Pharaonic civilization of the ancient Egyptians)

  • Antiquities exhibitions are one of the powerful means of tourism promotion for Egypt, specifically the promotion of cultural tourism in Cairo, Luxor and Aswan. A means of promoting visiting Egypt and restoring the incoming tourism movement, and at the same time helping to familiarize the various countries of the world with the archaeological treasures and great cultural heritage that Egypt contains. The exhibition returned to Egypt again.

  • After the ministry’s revenues amounted to 1.5 billion pounds annually, revenues decreased to 100 million pounds annually as a result of the sharp decline in the number of incoming tourists, so the thinking was to benefit from the returns of foreign exhibitions.

The era of the pyramid builders exhibition in Japan:

The exhibition "The Age of Pyramid Builders" opened on September 30, 2016 in Kyoto, its fifth stop in Japan, after the end of its Kagoshima trip. It is noteworthy that the exhibition "The Age of Pyramid Builders" began its journey in Japan in October 2015 in the Japanese capital, Tokyo, and then moved to Matsuyama, then Sendai, Kagoshima, and Kyoto, leaving him on his Japan tour. With three other cities, Toyama, Fukuoka and Shizuoka.

 The exhibition includes 120 artifacts dating back to the era of the Old Kingdom, which are duplicate pieces, including one of the statues of King Khafre, a group of statues of servants, workers, beer and bread makers, and a statue of a scribe. , a model of the toy "Cent", a model of the sun boat, a statue of the king "Ni and Serre Ra", and a set of ornaments. And a statue of a nobleman of the Old Kingdom called "Kai".

The Ministry of Antiquities also held a set of temporary exhibitions in a number of Egyptian museums, namely:

  • A temporary exhibition of archaeological copies at the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir, from the Archaeological Model Implementation Unit and the Art Revival Center at the Ministry, in addition to archaeological books from the Ministry’s publications with a 50% discount on what was previously issued. 2011 and 75% on what was issued after 2011 - the agreement to hold the first exhibition. An external exhibition of archaeological copies in Japan includes a number of copies of King Tutankhamun. There is also a temporary exhibition of antiquities under the title "Exhibition of Recovered Antiquities: 2014-2015" in Hall No. 44 of the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir, which coincided with the celebration of the annual feast of archaeologists.

  • The temporary antiquities exhibition "Sinai, the cradle of the alphabet" at the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir, within the framework of the Ministry of Antiquities' celebration of the Sinai Liberation Day, and the exhibition of the secrets of Coptic icons at the Coptic Museum in the Coptic Museum. Religions complex. Parts of the papyri of King Khufu were discovered for the first time in the port of Wadi al-Jarf in the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir.

  • A temporary exhibition of Islamic antiquities "Islamic Treasures" at the Suez Museum on the occasion of the celebration of the Suez National Festival, and an exhibition of traditional crafts in the Mamluk desert area under the title "Sultan's Exhibition between Ancient and Modern".

Important archaeological discoveries in the governorates of Egypt:

  • The Egyptian civilization is an ancient civilization that preceded the civilizations of the world...a pioneer in its innovations, buildings and arts that amazed science and scientists with its thought and knowledge. Disclosure of a number of important discoveries in various governorates of Egypt, including:

  • The Egyptian-American joint mission operating in the Al-Asasif area on the western bank of Luxor revealed the burial chamber and coffin of the Mayor of Thebes, who was the fourth priest of Amun in the era of the twenty-fifth dynasty. During excavations and archaeological cleaning inside his tomb No. TT391. In the archaeological area of ​​Licht, the tomb of a high-ranking statesman during the reign of King Senusret I of the Twelfth Dynasty bore the title of "Bearer of the Royal Seals".

  • The expedition of the Czech Institute of Egyptian Archeology at the Faculty of Arts - Charles University in Prague found the remains of a large wooden boat in the archaeological area of ​​Abusir during excavations in the area south of the non-royal mastaba (AS 54). It is considered the only one that was found from the Old Kingdom next to a non-royal mastaba, which confirms the importance and position of the owner of the mastaba in this era.

  • The joint Egyptian-European archaeological mission working in the temple of King Amenhotep III on the western bank of Luxor discovered a group of statues and parts of the statues of the goddess Sekhmet, in addition to the central part of a statue of King Amenhotep III.

  • The German mission from the University of Bonn found a group of prehistoric rock inscriptions in the area of ​​the nobles' tombs in the city of Aswan. The German archaeological mission on the island of Elephantine also found a group of stone blocks of different shapes, which likely formed the cabin of a sacred boat for Queen "Hatshepsut", which she dedicated to the god "Khnum".

  • The German archaeological mission discovered near the Temple of the Sun in Heliopolis, new evidence indicating the existence of a temple to King Nectanebo I of the Thirtieth Dynasty. The goddess "Hathor" who bears the title of "Lady Hetpet" also discovered new evidence that increases the possibility of the existence of a temple to King "Ramses II" in the northern corner of the Heliopolis region. These guides consist of a group of large stone blocks, with inscriptions depicting King "Ramses II" as a deity named "Bar Ra Masu".

  • As for the Swiss mission working on Elephantine Island in Aswan, they found two statues, one of the Prince "Haq Ibb" from the era of the Old Kingdom and the second of an unknown person, in addition to a painting of offerings. Back to the era of the modern state of the eighteenth dynasty.

  • Follow the discoveries in Aswan, where the expedition of the Spanish University of Khaian working in the tombs of the nobles unearthed the mummy of a lady of the Twelfth Dynasty era called "Sachini", one of the central figures in the era of the state. The Middle Kingdom, where she was the mother of two of the most important and famous rulers of Aswan during the reign of King "Amenemhat III", namely "Haq Eb III" and "Amini Seneb", where she was the daughter of Prince "Sarnbut II".

  • In cooperation with the archaeological mission of the Egyptian Exploration Society and the Aswan Antiquities Society, the Birmingham University mission uncovered the ascending road leading to the tomb of "Sarnbot I" (the first ruler of the Elephantine region in the Middle Kingdom) in Egypt. The Air Dome area in Aswan, despite the start of excavations at the site since the eighties. From the last century, in addition to the earthenware found within a pit directly beside the ascending road, it is likely that they were used to preserve embalming materials during later periods.

  • The Spanish mission working in the temple of King Thutmose III in Luxor succeeded in finding a tomb from the third transitional period belonging to a person called "Amin Ir-Neef", bearing the title of servant of the royal house, during archaeological excavations in Egypt. The exterior of the southern wall of the temple of King Thutmose III. Its significance is due to the fact that a sarcophagus was found containing a mummy in a good state of preservation.

  • During the excavations carried out by the Egyptian archaeological mission of the Ministry of Antiquities in the city of Abydos, Sohag, a cemetery and a residential city dating back to the era of the beginning of the ruling dynasties were discovered. The tomb is located 400 meters south of the temple of King Seti I in Abydos.

  • A number of important documents related to the correspondence exchanged between officials of the Antiquities Authority at that time and archaeologists of the world, documents dating back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries AD, were found in one of the repositories of the Supreme Council of Ants.

Archaeological awareness and community outreach activities:

  •  Organizing an educational program for children under the title “The Colors of Our Ancestors” at the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir, aimed at introducing children to ancient Egyptian art and the extent of the skill of its artists. And the “You can see with your hands” celebration to celebrate the International Day of the Blind, and the “Watch and See” program, which includes the issuance of an antique passport for the child to carry with him during his various archaeological tours.

  • The Ministry's Scientific Publishing Department, in cooperation with a number of scientific bodies, succeeded in publishing a set of scientific books and periodicals: The book "The History of Ancient Egypt from the Twenty-first Dynasty to the Thirty-first Dynasty." And two new English-language periodicals, one titled "Reconstruction in Egypt" and the other titled "Science". Antiquities in Egypt.

Cooperation between the Ministry of Antiquities, Museums and International Organizations:

  •  The year 2016 witnessed many aspects of cooperation between the Ministry of Antiquities and many museums and international and local bodies concerned with antiquities affairs, including the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Egyptian Museum and the Shanghai Museum in China, and between the Islamic Museum. Art and the Louvre Museum, as well as the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Ministry of Antiquities and the General Authority for Tourism and National Heritage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and between the Grand Egyptian Museum and the Tokyo National Museum, which is the first time that this has been done. The Tokyo Museum has signed a cooperation agreement with a third party outside Asia. A memorandum of understanding was also signed with the United States of America on preventing smuggling and trafficking in antiquities.

  • A financing agreement provided by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to complete the construction works of the Grand Egyptian Museum project. A cooperation protocol was signed with the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology to activate the uses of modern technology in preserving Egypt's antiquities.

  • The signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Ministry and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, aimed at strengthening ways of joint cooperation between the Ministry and the Foundation to serve the field of archaeological work, especially in the areas of museum programs, research and construction. Preservation.

  • - Holding a number of international scientific conferences and discussing the latest studies in the field of archaeological work with the participation of archaeologists from different countries of the world, namely: The Second International Conference of King Tutankhamun at the Grand Egyptian Museum, which includes a group. Scientific lectures about King Tutankhamun's clothes and his gold decoration, as well as a discussion of his latest discoveries. Radar scanning works inside his tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, and the completion of the radar scanning of King Tutankhamun's tomb. Tutankhamun, and the completion of the project to survey the pyramids.

The development of archaeological sites:

  • Establishing 14 archaeological buildings at the Historic Cairo site to start restoration and development works within the framework of the national campaign launched by the Ministry in 2015 to save 100 archaeological buildings at the site. And the completion of the limited tender procedures for a number of consulting offices to prepare all studies and research for the development and rehabilitation of the Beit Al-Qadi area in Historic Cairo - Maintenance of the groundwater reduction system in the Sultan Qalawun Group in Al-Mu’izz Lidin Allah Al-Fatimi Street.

  • - Cooperation with the Heliopolis Foundation for Heritage and a number of authorities concerned with Egyptian heritage and antiquities to reuse and restore Baron Empain Palace in Heliopolis. - Developing the internal and external lighting system for the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir.

  •   - Completing the restoration of the huge stone blocks of the ceiling of the chapel of King Thutmose III in the Karnak Open Air Museum within the work of the French-Egyptian Center for the Study of Karnak Temples in 2015.

  • Preparing the initial file for the inclusion of the Pharaoh's Island site in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Traces of the Pharaonic Civilization:

Documentary the most powerful civilization on earth (Pharaonic civilization of the ancient Egyptians)

Pharaonic civilization is one of the most important civilizations witnessed by the ancient and modern world. Where the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids and temples after the establishment of a unified kingdom in 3100 BC, and among the most important of these landmarks:


  • It is one of the greatest monuments of the Pharaonic civilization that was built in the Giza area (2500 years ago) and was classified among the Seven Wonders of the World. It was built in the era of the Fourth Dynasty, and it consists of three pyramids (Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure). These pyramids contain secret passages and tombs of the kings of the ancient Egyptian civilization.


  • It is a temple next to the famous pyramid of Hawara, which is one of the pharaonic symbols.

The Sphinx:

  • It is a strange and distinctive stone statue built in the form of a lion to signify strength and a human head to signify wisdom, intelligence and intelligence. It is located in the pyramids area in Giza. It was built during the reign of Khafre.

Abu Simbel:

  • It is a temple filled with the most beautiful tales of the pharaohs. The drawings and sculpture inside the temple are strong evidence of the pharaonic civilization and the events and tales that were taking place. It is tangible evidence of the beauty of pharaonic architecture and engineering.

Temple of Ramses II:

  • It was built in the thirteenth century BC. Where it was carved in the mountains.

Abu Mina:

  • It is an ancient Christian city located west of Alexandria and contains the tomb of Saint Marmina, and contains a number of churches, Christian monasteries and archaeological workshops.

Tutankhamun statue:

  • It is one of the most famous statues that reveal the kings of the ancient Egyptian civilization. It is one of six statues made of sandstone attributed to the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun.

Hatshepsut Temple:

  • A huge monument built for Queen Hatshepsut in 1458 BC, located at the foot of the high cliffs of the desert floor, this temple has three tiers of terraces.

Curved pyramid:

  • Built by a pharaoh named Sneferu in Dahshur, it is a pyramid high from the desert at an angle of 55 degrees.

Step Pyramid of Djoser:

  • It is considered the first pyramid built by the ancient pharaohs in the twenty-seventh century BC. A pharaoh named Djoser was buried by Minister Imhotep, and it is located in the necropolis of Saqqara, where this pyramid was built in the form of a traditional mastaba with a flat roof, and after the end of Djoser's reign it turned into a 6-tier pyramid with a height of 62 m.

Luxor temple:

  • Founded in 1400 BC, this temple is located on the eastern bank of the Nile in the ancient city of Thebes.

red pyramid

  • This pyramid was built by Pharaoh Sneferu. It is a smooth-sided pyramid with a height of 104 m. It is the fourth highest pyramid in Egypt.

Valley of the Kings:

  • A valley in Egypt in which the tombs of the kings of the Pharaonic civilization were built for a period of 500 years, from the sixteenth century to the eleventh century BC. The valley contains 63 tombs and chambers of various sizes, in which the royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology.

symbols of pharaonic civilization

 The pharaonic civilization contained many symbols; Which carried different connotations and expressions, and the following are mentioned some of them:

The Ankh

  • A cross with a twisted top symbolizes inner and fulfilling protection, faith, and energy.

Find The Djed

  • Known as Azores, it refers to strength and stability.

The was scepter

  • It symbolizes the power and supremacy of the ancient god and king.

The scarab

  • It refers to ideas of existence, transformation, growth, and efficacy.

The dress

  • Known as the Isis necklace, it symbolizes feminine power, masculinity, thoughts of eternal life, and the Day of Resurrection.

Lotus symbol

  • It refers to purity, cleanliness, birth and renewal, as well as creativity.

The Shen

  • It symbolizes infinity, completeness, eternity, and divine protection. A widget indicates healing, good health, and luck.

The Udjat Eye (The Eye of Ra)

  • Denotes protection, love, good health, power, and royalty. Urboros refers to eternity, recreation.


  •  Refers to good luck and protection from evil before and after death.

The importance of the pharaonic civilization to civilization

The pharaonic importance was manifested in the following:

  1. Contributed to the development of buildings and huge buildings built by the pharaohs to signify power.
  2. Contributed to the development of the country at the agricultural level as a result of the Pharaonic civilization that established the Nile and whose floods became a reason for supplying the soil with the water needed for agriculture.
  3. Contributed to the formation of extensive trade networks across the Nile River and the Red Sea.

How did the pharaonic civilization end?

External factors

The Pharaonic civilization fell due to the weakness of its rulers, and the invaders fought against Egypt, and from the invaders who tried to seize Egypt:

  1. The Hyksos: They came to Egypt in 1786-1560 BC from the Levant and Iraq because of the climatic changes that those regions were going through. They reached Egypt to settle there, but King Ahmose stopped them, and was able to drive them out of the country.
  2. The Assyrians: They came to Egypt in 1786-1560 BC, from Iraq and the Levant, where they tried to include Egypt in their rule, but their attempt was unsuccessful.
  3. The Achaemenids: They are one of the Persian royal families that controlled large areas of the world, and they came to Egypt in 525-405 BC. They invaded Egypt twice, the first time they were confronted by the Egyptian people, but the second time they were expelled by King Alexander the Great.
  4. Alexander the Great: Alexander the Great conquered wide geographical areas, annexing Egypt to a queen in 332-305 BC. M and remained under his rule until he died, and fell into the rule of the Ptolemies.
  5. The Romans: They came to Egypt in the year 30 BC - 330 AD, and they entered Egypt in the Christian religion, and it remained so until the Islamic conquest in 639 AD by the companion Amr ibn al-Aas.

internal factors

  1. Kings changed and oppressed the weak people, causing many revolutions.
  2. The spread of nepotism, corruption and bribery.
  3.  Senior ministers take advantage of weak statesmen and overthrow the government.
  4. The religious change that occurred during the reign of King Akhenaten led to the disintegration and fall of the state.

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